Esophageal cancer surgery

What is Esophageal cancer surgery?

Esophageal cancer is the leading cause of death due to cancer. As the name indicates, it is a cancer of the esophagus that helps move the food from the throat to the stomach to be digested.

Initially, cancer develops within the esophageal cell. It can occur anywhere in the cell. Men are more suspected of esophageal cancer than women. Consumption of tobacco, alcohol can account for this. 

In the early stage, esophageal cancer shows no signs and symptoms. After that, people may face difficulty swallowing, chest pain, chest burning, weight loss, heartburn, digestion issues, and cough.

Causes

The causes of esophageal cancer are still unknown. It can be the result of the mutation in the DNA during which the cells divide abnormally. These cells may gather and form a tumor that can grow and invade other structures and spread to other body parts.

Types Of Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal cancer classification is based on the type of cells that are involved. Types of esophageal cancer include:

· Adenocarcinoma. It is the most typical form of esophageal cancer in the world, primarily affecting white men. Adenocarcinoma starts in the mucus-secreting glands cells in the esophagus, mostly in the lower portion of the esophagus.

· Squamous cell carcinoma. It is also the most prevalent form of esophageal cancer. It occurs mostly in the upper and middle areas of the esophagus. The squamous cells are flat cells that line the esophagus surface. 

· Other types. Some forms of esophageal cancer that are rare include small cell carcinoma, sarcoma, melanoma, and lymphoma.

If your esophageal cells get irritated, there might be a chance that you can develop esophageal cancer as irritation leads to several changes over there.

GERD, smoking, obesity, alcohol, Barrett’s esophagus, smoking, bile reflux, achalasia, use of hot liquids to drink, radiation therapies are some Factors that tend to cause irritation in the esophagus cells and increase the risk of esophageal cancer as well. Having bile reflux

If esophageal cancer remains untreated, it can obstruct the esophagus, causing severe pain and bleeding in the esophagus.

Surgery

Surgery to treat cancer can be used either used alone or in combination with other treatments.

Operations to treat esophageal cancer include:

· Surgery to remove tiny tumors. If the cancer is small and confined, the surgeon recommends removing the tumor and the surrounding healthy tissue margin. This Surgery can also involve an endoscope that passes down the throat and into the esophagus.

· Surgery to remove an esophagus portion. The surgeon will remove the cancerous portion of the esophagus, the upper part of the stomach, and nearby lymph nodes. The abdomen is pulled up to meet the remaining esophagus.

· Surgery to remove a portion of the esophagus and the upper portion of your stomach (esophagogastrectomy). The surgeon will remove part of the esophagus, surrounding lymph nodes, and a larger share of the stomach. Then again, the left stomach is then pulled up to reattach to the esophagus.

The risk associated with the surgeries is infections, bleeding, and sometimes leakage from the part of the esophagus which is attached to the stomach.

Surgery to remove the esophagus can be an open procedure that involves large incisions, or it can be done with special surgical tools inserted through several small incisions; however, it depends on the patient’s situation and the surgeon’s particular approach.